Yi-Chih Chang, PhD Progressing (張益銍 博士進修中)

Yi-Chih Chang, PhD Progressing (張益銍 博士進修中)

Instructor Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University
Email: yichih@mail.cmu.edu.tw
Phone: 886-4-22053366 ext. 7209
Fax: 886-4-22057414
Office: 14 F, Li-Fu Teaching Building
Mailing Address: Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University
91, Hsueh-Shih Rd., Taichung, Taiwan 40402, R.O.C.


Institution Nation Department/Program Degree Dates
National Chung-Hsing University Taiwan, ROC Veterinary medicine PhD. Progressing From 2005 / 8 to Now
National Yang-Ming University Taiwan, ROC Medical Biotechnology Master From 1996 / 8 to 1999 / 7
China Medical College Taiwan, ROC Medical Technology Bachelor From 1990 / 8to 1993 / 7


Professional Experience

Institution Department/Program Position Duration
China Medical University Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology Assistant professor From  2012  /to present
China Medical University Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology Instructor From  1999  /to 2012 / 8
Chung-Tai Institute of Health Sciences and Technology Department of Medical Technology Part-time Instructor From 2000 /  8  to 2003 /
China Medical College Department of Medical Technology Assistant Instructor From 1993 /  8  to 1999 /



Current Research of Yi-Chih Chang Lab

  1. Antibiotic resistant patterns and correlations of the strain species, the tet-gene types and the intensities of their resistances against tetracycline between Lactobacillus strains isolated from human feces and swine guts.
    Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic which is used for treatment in a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria infections in human and animals, but its efficacy has been threatened by microbial resistance.  Most resistance genes have been isolated from bacteria, but little research about the antibiotic resistance from commensal bacteria of the human faeces and swine gut was reported.  Many investigators speculated that the commensal flora, such as Lactobacilus species, may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, in a similar way as that of pathogenic microorganisms.  Therefore, it is important to know types, distribution and expression of the tetracycline resistance genes(tet genes) in Lactobacillus species. The distribution and types of tet genes were determined by multiplex PCR with a set of designed primers.  In order to clarify the specie of all isolates,  API 50 CH test and RAPID ID 32A test were performed.  A broth macrodilution method was carried out to obtain the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all isolates against tetracycline.  This study can provide the information about the distribution and types of tet genes of Lactobacillus species isolated from human and animal in Taiwan.  Furthermore, the correlation among the types of tet genes, the strain species and the extent of their resistances against tetracycline was elucidated, which could make a contribution for clinical application.
    Keywords : tetracycline resistance genes ( tet genes ),Lactobactillus species, broth macrodilution method, multiplex PCRs, API 50 CH test and RAPID ID 32A test
    broth macrodilution method, multiplex PCRs, API 50 CH test and RAPID ID 32A test
  2. Analysis and application of two high copy-number plasmids, pAE60 and pK50, existing in Lactobacter reuteri strains isolated from chicken intestines.
    The complete nucleotide sequence of a cryptic plasmid, pK50-2, from Lactobacillus reuteri K50 had been determined. It consisted of an 1866 bp circular molecule with a G + C content of 35%, from which two putative open reading frames (orfs) could be predicted. Based on sequence similarity, the orf1 was not homologous to any known protein, while the N-terminus of the orf2 shared 56% and 64% identities with RepB proteins of plasmid pAR141 and an unnamed plasmid in L. reuteri strain PA-16, members of the rolling-circle replication (RCR) pMV158 family, respectively. Downstream of orf2, a sequence containing two conserved regions (i.e., bind and nick), possibly involved in the binding and nicking of Rep protein, similar to the dso (double strand origin) of RCR-pMV158 family was also identified. Furthermore, a sequence capable of forming the characteristic secondary structure of ssoT (single-strand origin type T) was subsequently determined upstream of the orf2 gene. Thus, the three elements essential for a RCR plasmid (i.e., dso, sso, and rep gene) were all deducible in the pK50-2. Noteworthy was that a conserved alpha helix-turn-alpha helix (HTH) motif, thus far only seen in theta-type plasmids, was for the first time identified in Rep protein of RCR plasmid, pK50-2. To estimate the pK50-2 could be an expression vector to deliver exogenous antigens, a shuttle vector pK50-S containing both pK50-2 and pUE80 (−) was used to analyze the segregational stability and copy-number, which were shown that pK50-S in L. reuteri DSM 20016 were estimated to be 98%, 77%, and 75% after 36, 72, and 100 generations and about 50 copies per chromosome equivalent by real-time PCR
    Keywords :Lactobacillus reuteri; Rolling-circle replication, Alpha helix-turn-alpha helix (HTH) motif
  3. Inhibitive effect and synergistic effect of probiotic excretions on the emergence of antimicrobial resistance pathogens in pediatric populations.

    Antibiotic resistance, a major public health problem around the world, has high morbidity and mortality rates in hospital infections. Antibiotic abuse and overdosing are considered to be the main causes of antibiotic resistance. Widespread prescription of antibiotics not only has led to an increase in antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogen strains, but is often associated with the disruption of the protective flora, leading to predisposition to infections. Major bacteria causing pediatric and nosocomial infections include are: extended - spectrum beta-lactameses (ESBL) producing enterobacteria and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Immediately, it is a important challenge to control and treat the emergence of microorganisms against antibiotics. Lactobacillus species and Bifidobacterium are probiotics frequently said to have health-promoting effects in the human intestinal and reproductive tract. It is increasingly accepted that these bacteria might represent effective tools for controlling overgrowth of pathogens and thereby control or prevent infections. Indeed, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies performed with different genera of probiotics bacteria have shown the capacities of these bacteria to interfere with both growth and virulence properties of various pathogens. Both inhibitive effect on bacterial growth and synergistic with antibiotics antimicrobial activity of probiotics excretions were examined on antibiotic resistant pathogens. Further investigation on probiotics synergistic effect will provide another pattern for antibiotic usage on infectious diseases.
    Keywords:Antibiotic resistance, extended-spectrum beta-lactameses (ESBL), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin resistance Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (probiotics), Synergistic assay, inhibitive effect




    1. Tien N, Sung YJ, Chang YC, You BJ, Liang M, Lim YP, Ho WY, Lin HS, Ho MW, Ho CM, Chang CC, Lan YC. The medical diagnostic approaches with phylogenetic analysis for rare Brucella spp. diagnosis in Taiwan. Biomedicine (Taipei). 2015 Jun;5(2):9.
    2. Huang TJ, Yang CL, Kuo YC, Chang YC, Yang LM, Chou BH, Lin SJ. Synthesis and anti-hepatitis B virus activity of C4 amide-substituted isosteviol derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015 Feb 15;23(4):720-8.
    3. Huang TJ, Tsai YC, Chiang SY, Wang GJ, Kuo YC, Chang YC, Wu YY, Wu YC. Anti-viral effect of a compound isolated from Liriope platyphylla against hepatitis B virus in vitro. Virus Res. 2014 Nov 4;192:16-24.
    4. Lin YT, Huang YW, Liou RS, Chang YC, Yang TC. MacABCsm, an ABC-type tripartite efflux pump of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia involved in drug resistance, oxidative and envelope stress tolerances and biofilm formation. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Dec;69(12):3221-6.
    5. Chiu CC, Huang YT, Wang YC, Chang YC, Ching YH, Chen HH, Chuang HL. Pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide ameliorates Pseudomonas exotoxin A-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013 Apr;35(2):296-303.
    6. Wang IK, Muo CH, Chang YC, Liang CC, Chang CT, Lin SY, Yen TH, Chuang FR, Chen PC, Huang CC, Wen CP, Sung FC, Morisky DE. Association between hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and end-stage renal disease: a population-based study. CMAJ. 2013 Feb 19;185(3):207-13.
    7. Wang IK, Lin CL, Chang YC, Lin PC, Liang CC, Liu YL, Chang CT, Yen TH, Huang CC, Sung FC. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly diabetic patients: a retrospective cohort study. Vaccine. 2013 Jan 11;31(4):718-24.
    8. Hsiang CY, Hseu YC, Chang YC, Kumar KJ, Ho TY, Yang HL. Toona sinensis and its major bioactive compound gallic acid inhibit LPS-induced inflammation in nuclear factor-κB transgenic mice as evaluated by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Food Chem. 2013 Jan 15;136(2):426-34.
    9. Chang TN, Deng JS, Chang YC, Lee CY, Jung-Chun L, Lee MM, Peng WH, Huang SS, Huang GJ. Ameliorative Effects of Scopoletin from Crossostephium chinensis against Inflammation Pain and Its Mechanisms in Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:595603.
    10. Chang YC, Huang JY, Chiou MT, Chung TC, Hsu WL, Lin CF. Characterization of a small cryptic plasmid pK50-2 isolated from Lactobacillus reuteri K50. Plasmid. 2013 Jan;69(1):58-66.
    11. Chang SJ, Chang YC, Lu KZ, Tsou YY, Lin CW. Antiviral Activity of Isatis indigotica Extract and Its Derived Indirubin against Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:925830.
    12.  Wang IK, Muo CH, Chang YC, Liang CC, Lin SY, Chang CT, Yen TH, Chuang FR, Chen PC, Huang CC, Sung FC. Risks, subtypes, and hospitalization costs of stroke among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan. J Rheumatol. 2012 Aug;39(8):1611-8.
    13. Deng JS, Chang YC, Wen CL, Liao JC, Hou WC, Amagaya S, Huang SS, Huang GJ. Hepatoprotective effect of the ethanol extract of Vitis thunbergii on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats through anti-oxidative activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Aug 1;142(3):795-803.
    14. Wang IK, Chang YC, Liang CC, Chuang FR, Chang CT, Lin HH, Lin CC, Yen TH, Lin PC, Chou CY, Huang CC, Tsai WC, Chen JH. Bacteremia in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Intern Med. 2012;51(9):1015-21.
    15. Wang IK, Kung PT, Kuo WY, Tsai WC, Chang YC, Liang CC, Chang CT, Yeh HC, Wang SM, Chuang FR, Wang KY, Lin CY, Huang CC. Impact of dialysis modality on the survival of end-stage renal disease patients with or without cardiovascular disease. J Nephrol. 2013 Mar-Apr;26(2):331-41.
    16. Lin YJ, Chang YC, Hsiao NW, Hsieh JL, Wang CY, Kung SH, Tsai FJ, Lan YC, Lin CW. Fisetin and rutin as 3C protease inhibitors of enterovirus A71. J Virol Methods. 2012 Jun;182(1-2):93-8.
    17. Wang IK, Lai HC, Yu CJ, Liang CC, Chang CT, Kuo HL, Yang YF, Lin CC, Lin HH, Liu YL, Chang YC, Wu YY, Chen CH, Li CY, Chuang FR, Huang CC, Lin CH, Lin HC. Real-time PCR analysis of the intestinal microbiotas in peritoneal dialysis patients. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Feb;78(4):1107-12.
    18. Chang YC, Wang TC, Wang IK, Lin CF, Chuang HL, Chung TC* and Chen TH.* Ciprofloxacin and tetracycline susceptibility of lactobacilli isolated from indigenous children’s feces. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2012 Jan; 6(2):245-250.
    19. Chang YC, Chuang HL, Chiu CC, Yeh KS, Chang CC, Hsuan SL, Lai TC, Chung TC, Wang YC and Chen TH. Salmonella genomic island 1 and class 1 integron in Salmonella isolates from stray dogs. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2011 Oct; 5(23): 3907-3912
    20. Chang YC, Tsai CY, Lin CF, Wang YC, Wang IK, Chung TC. Characterization of tetracycline resistance lactobacilli isolated from swine intestines at western area of Taiwan. Anaerobe. 2011 Oct;17(5):239-45.
    21. Wang YC, Chang YC, Chuang HL, Chiu CC, Yeh KS, Chang CC, Hsuan SL, Chen TH. Transmission of Salmonella between Swine Farms by the Housefly (Musca domestica. J Food Protect. 2011 Jun;74(6):1012-6.
    22. Chang YC, Tsai MJ, Huang YW, Chung TC, Yang TC. SmQnrR, a DeoR-type transcriptional regulator, negatively regulates the expression of Smqnr and SmtcrA in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 May;66(5):1024-8.
    23. Chang YC,Huang YW, Chiang KH, Yang TC and Chung TC. Introduction of an AmpR-L2 intergenic segment attenuates the induced β-lactamase activity of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010. 29(7):887-90.
    24. Wang YC, Chang YC, Chuang HL, Chiu CC, Yeh KS, Chang CC, Hsuan SL, Chen TH. Antibiotic resistance, integrons and Salmonella genomic island 1 among Salmonella Schwarzengrund in broiler chicken and pig. Africa J Microbiol Res. 2010
    25. Wang YC, Chan JP, Yeh KS, Chang CC, Hsuan SL, Hsieh YM, Chang YC, Lai TC, Lin WH, Chen TH. Molecular characterization of enrofloxacin resistant Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates. Vet Microbiol. 2010 ;142(3-4):309-12.
    26. Hu RM, Chiang KH, Chang YC, Yang TC. Characterization of the charge variants of L2 beta-lactamase in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. J Med Microbiol. 2009 Mar;58(Pt 3):318-21.
    27. Lin CC, Chen TH, Wang YC, Chang CC, Hsuan SL, Chang YC, Yeh KS. Analysis of ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella strains from swine, chicken, and their carcasses in Taiwan and detection of parC resistance mutations by a mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR. J Food Prot. 2009 Jan;72(1):14-20.
    28. Lin CW, Chiou CS , Chang YC and Yang TC. Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and three rep-PCR methods for evaluating the genetic relatedness of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2008 Nov;47(5):393-8.
    29. Chang YC, Lin YH. The relation of allogeneic transplant with zoonotic disease. Bulletin of Taiwan Society of Laboratory Medicine. 2007;22(5):64-66.
    30. Cheng JC, Huang CL, Lin CC, Chen CC, Chang YC, Chang SS, Tseng CP. Rapid detection and identification of clinically important bacteria by high-resolution melting analysis after broad-range ribosomal RNA real-time PCR. Clin Chem. 2006 Nov;52(11):1997-2004.
    31. Wu CM, Lin CF, Chang YC, Chung TC. Construction and characterization of nisin-controlled expression vectors for use in Lactobacillus reuteri. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Apr;70(4):757-67.


  1. Text Book of Clinical Microbiology: Bacteriology and Mycology. Jiunn-Jong Wu(Proofreader), Yi-Chih Chang(one of authors). 2009. 3th edit.